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Forthcoming Lectures and Events.

Tuesday 10th April - Paul Baker (City of London Guide) — In the footsteps of the famous in High Barnet

Tuesday 8th May - David Berguer (Friern Barnet and District Local History Society Chairman and curatorial lecturer at London Transport Museum) Trams of North-West London.

Tuesday 12th June - Annual General Meeting.

Saturday 4th August - Outing (destination to be announced later) with June Porges and Stuart Wild.

As ever, lectures and the AGM take place at Avenue House, 17 East End Road, Finchley, N3 3QE. Events begin at 8pm. Non-members £1. Tea, coffee and biscuits 80.p. Fifteen-minute walk from Finchley Central tube station. Turn left on exiting the station and go down the hill - East End Road is a turning on the left; several nearby bus routes; limited parking.

Volunteers urgently wanted by Don Cooper

For many years now HADAS has been running two one-day summer outings to places of archaeological interest as well as one long week-end away. Following the resignation of Jackie Brookes, who so ably ran the week-end away for a long time, we need volunteer/volunteers to organise this event. Although it is probably too late for this year, it would be a great shame if this annual event were no longer in the HADAS calendar. It typically attracts between 35 and 45 members who will otherwise be disappointed. Likewise, June, Stewart, Tessa and Sheila, with help from Dorothy as well as others, have been organising one-day outings for as long as anyone can remember!!! We need volunteers to take on these tasks and also perhaps to run more local (London) events. Do please seize these opportunities — we need your help. If you would like more details or would like to run an event please contact me (details at the end of this newsletter) or any one of the committee.

Resistivity Day by Bill Bass and Andy Simpson

In February at Avenue House HADAS was able to pay host to two members of the St. Albans Archaeological and Historical Society (Roger Miles and Bill Martin). They wished to field-test their home-built version of their new resistivity surveying equipment with HADAS's CIA version for a 'compare and contrast'. We laid out a grid over a known feature — a Victorian pond/fountain feature backfilled just after the war — the results being shown at the end, with the paler area of the pond showing up well against the darker, higher- resistance background This meant the rare sight, for HADAS, of two resistivity meters working on the same grid. We gained some useful insights from the St Albans team, including cable arrangement and use of new `surveyor's chains'

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Reva Brown remembered

Members will be saddened to learn that Reva Brown died very suddenly in January. She was one of Dorothy's loyal team of newsletter editors for many years. She had been Professor of Business Studies at Oxford Brookes Business School. Born in South Africa shortly after the outbreak of the second world war, she had a degree in English Literature from the University of Cape Town. Disenchanted with the emerging political climate, she and her partner chose to leave South Africa. After settling in Britain, she became a freelance journalist and lecturer in secretarial studies at Hendon College of Further Education. She studied for a post-graduate diploma in research methods then for no fewer than two MAs and a PhD for a thesis entitled "The Business of Knowledge and the Knowledge of Business." Reva became a member of HADAS around 1974 when she bought and moved in to a flat in Hendon. She had a keen interest in history and in people, and so the archaeological society was ideally suited to her tastes. As well as the conversations with many of the members, including Dorothy Newbury, she particularly enjoyed the outings to places of interest, and brought her ten year old son along on many of the trips. The time spent on the coach was perfect for her as she could talk and knit while simultaneously enjoying the scenery. Reva and her son would enjoy packed lunches that she made specially fur the occasion. She went to a number of diverse locations including the Roman Baths at Bath, Canterbury Cathedral, and a village of recreated houses of various historical times. When she moved away in 1988, she missed the HADAS outings. In recent years, she visited her son in London (by now middle-aged), and the two again went on a couple of the HADAS days out, seeing a Roman villa being excavated and visiting a castle and museum. On these trips she forewent the packed lunches in favour of food prepared in commercial establishments which she ate with gusto.

Other deaths by Peter Pickering

Reva's is not the only death I have to report. We send our condolences to our member Sigrid Padel on the recent death of her husband. And Martin Gladman, so long a bookseller in West Finchley and before that in Friern Barnet, died tragically in February.

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February Lecture by Tessa Smith

Avenue House was packed for the February lecture presented by Dr Andrew Gardner entitled "The End of Roman Britain." What? When? HOW? Dr Gardner began with an amusing cartoon of the Roman Governor leaving British shores with the quip "Well, I'm off. Look out for the Angles, Jutes, Saxons, Scots, Picts, Danes and Normans." Throughout his lecture Dr Gardner compared the changes that happened under Roman rule, with the continuity of Roman influence after they had left Britain, his goal being to try to see both sides of the story. Comparing evidence from the year A.D. 300 with that from A.D. 600, he touched on evidence from archaeology, religion, culture, politics and the military. Slides of central Canterbury in the 3rd century showed classical buildings in a prosperous, bustling area, whereas excavations of the 7th century showed a much smaller central area built within the 3rd century ruined buildings. At Cirencester the Forum changed its original use and became a high status residence with mosaic floors. Silchester basilica and Forum became centres for light industry over the centuries. Generally large Roman administered towns became smaller over the years. Making a case for continuity, Dr. Gardner highlighted Wroxeter, where bath house materials were reused for high status dwellings. In the countryside many Saxon houses reused Roman farm structures, e.g. Orton Hall farm in Cambridgeshire, and many Roman villas continued to be occupied when Roman troops had gone. Change in religious culture from 2nd century worship of Jupiter to the acknowledgement of Christianity in the 4th century is accepted, but whom did these changes actually affect? A fascinating fact offered by Dr Gardner was that the elite, the military and the traders in newly built Roman towns together made up only 10% of the whole population, the other 90% worked the land and had only limited contact with the Romans and their culture. Evidence for religious continuity came from Wasperton where a Romano-British cemetery continued in use into Anglo-Saxon times, and at Uley the Roman Temple continued in use as an early English church on the same site. Military buildings changed in their style and use over the decades, stone quarrying for the military stopped in the latter part of Roman occupation, at South Shields the Gateway was recommissioned and continued in use, but with a more perishable material than the previously used stone. At Housesteads the early 4th century small chalet style of buildings changed to the later Roman long garrison style and at Birdoswald the granary changed to domestic use as a hall. The Romans introduced sophisticated pottery, Samian ware, which influenced Romano-British styles, and production of which fluctuated between A.D. 50 and A.D 400. Imports of continental pottery stopped altogether around 400 and Roman coinage minted on the continent was also no longer imported after that time. How did people experience this change? Was it catastrophic? Cultural changes were shown by loss of literacy by A.D. 600-700. Written evidence had a strongly religious and political agenda, was often written far away in the Mediterranean area and often a great length of time after the event. Manuscripts had been copied many times and mistakes made. So how reliable was this source of information? Dr. Gardner's lecture questioned continually. When did change occur? What was the pace of change? What is meant by Roman? Why was there a collapse of values? Why did change occur? Plenty to mull over as we travelled home via Watling Street.

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Further Thoughts on the end of Roman Britain by Andy Simpson

Besides my notes of Dr Gardner's lecture, I used the recent Osprey Fortress Series Publication 'Rome's Saxon Shore - Coastal Defences AD250-500' Nic Fields 2006. ISBN 10 84603 094 3, 'The Ending of Roman Britain' b A S Esmonde Cleary (Batsford 1989 ISBN 0 7134 5275 7), The Decline and Fall of Roman Britain' by Neil Faulkner (Tempus 2000 ISBN 0 7524 1944 7), and 'Britain and the End of the Roman Empire' by Ken Dark (Tempus 2000, ISBN 0 7524 2532 3) This is an endlessly fascinating period, featured in popular culture and theatre, right up to the recent Hollywood 'King Arthur' film with Keira Knightly. The Roman Empire is seen as the paragon of civilisation, with the common view of history that around A.D. 410 the Romans left the Britons to the tender mercies of the Saxons. Dr Gardner's lecture looked at the Britain of around A.D. 300, problems of interpretation, different aspects of 4th-5th century archaeology, and comparing Roman Britain in A.D. 300 to the situation in post- Roman 'Dark Age' Britain in Al). 600. By A.D. 300, Britain had recently rejoined the Roman Empire after another rebellion by an usurper of the Imperial crown, Carausius (287-293). Under the Emperor Diocletian, the Diocese of Britain (Britannia) was divided into four provinces. These included Maxima Caesariensis covering the SE and Britannia Secunda covering the whole of Britannia north of the Humber. Southern Britain was prosperous, with classical buildings in towns such as Canterbury with its theatre. Fourth century Roman material culture saw widespread circulation of pottery and coinage. There was a settlement hierarchy of towns and a large population. The post- (or sub-) Roman period saw a 'decline' and the growth of small native British and incoming Saxon kingdoms and less political centralisation. Christianity was reintroduced to eastern England by St Augustine in 597 (in the native Celtic west it had never gone away). The Saxon incomers lived in smaller villages rather than towns, with new forms of material culture in metalwork, burial customs and other cultural changes, including the loss of much literacy in eastern areas, (in the west it was preserved by the Celtic church). This is unlike Gaul/Frankish kingdoms, where Roman law was carefully maintained for a long time by the new 'Barbarian' rulers. What continued and what changed? There are two sides to the story and a problem of lack of evidence, so 'Dark Ages' though not an academically popular term does have some relevance. What does the 'dark earth' found in many towns sealing Roman levels actually mean? Is it evidence of agriculture within the walls, or the decayed remains of timber buildings? Loss of evidence is a fundamental problem, with a likely change in the way people used things such as buildings. Pottery and coinage seem to have gone out of use in the early fifth century, (possibly by 430) — a relatively sudden loss of such evidence, with new fashions in architecture etc. coming in. Some changes can be traced back into the fourth century. There are problems with written sources such as the Notitia Dignitatum — a list of civil and military officials and units, dated c.395 — Britain always being rather marginal for classical writers more concerned with happenings around the Mediterranean, and with political and religious biases. Sixth century monastic British writer Gildas, for instance, had a strong religious agenda, and Bede had a seventh century political agenda in his writings — they and other writers were at some distance from the events' they were recording which happened some 2-300 years earlier, like a modern writer recording the English Civil War, only with fewer primary sources. Sources such as the Notitia are usually medieval copies of earlier texts, leaving room for errors in transcription, especially in place names etc. What DO we mean by Roman? What had changed before the fifth century? And just WHO do we have evidence for? The material record is dominated by just 10% of the population. How do people experience change — was it a slow change over 20 years or more, or a catastrophic change? Did it happen at all? Few people in Roman Britain were actually FROM Rome, or even Italy. They were Roman because they lived in a Roman province, having a Roman identity, reinforced from the fourth century by a religious identity through the church — in the second century that identity was through worship of Jupiter 'Best and Greatest' and the other classical gods, and the cult of the Emperor. Different entity — same people. Culture — a Roman way of using artefacts. Roman citizenship was universal from the early third century, no longer earned through military service etc. How people lived — settlement patterns — living in a town — urban living being a key feature for `civilised' living, especially in the Eastern Empire. Was Romanisation just a façade? Pace of change — archaeological evidence gives a better picture of long-term change. Historical evidence relates to events possibly not known to everyone in those pre mass-media days. Changes occurred throughout the Roman period. The political situation — the usurpation of Magnus Maximus, the esteemed Macsen Wledig of Welsh legend, in 383-388, was followed in 395 by the succession of the Emperors Honorius in the West and Arcadius in the East. In the late 390s/early 400s the Romano-Vandal Generalissimo Flavius Stilicho was involved in Britain, but may then have run down garrisons, abandoned forts and withdrawn troops to protect other parts of the Empire from Gothic attacks around 398. In 406 came the rapid series of usurpations of British troops led by Marcus, Gratian and Constantine III, the latter crossing to Gaul in 407 only to be killed by imperial forces at Arles in 411. Serious barbarian attacks on Britain in 408-09 seem to have led to revolts 'of a popular nature' against Constantine/Constantinus, and in 410 came the infamous rescript of Honorius telling the British civil administration — the civitates — to 'look to their own defences' as the Visigoths sacked Rome. In 440-450 came the supposed `Adventus Saxonum' — 449, according to Bede — which Dr Gardner thinks doubtful. Towns — change and continuity. (`Town Life, or life in Towns? To quote my 1970s essay question) Fourth century towns were changing considerably, as evidenced, for instance, by the public buildings at Silchester, where there was metal working in the Basilica — perhaps the local military moving in to make equipment? At Cirencester, a provincial capital in the fourth century, where the excavations have been only part published, there may have been a high status residence for the provincial governor created from the basilica, which became a restricted access area for an authority figure rather than a publicly accessible structure. Fourth century town houses may have catered for a small but rich population involved in administration, with artisans working in the smaller towns/nucleated settlements springing up elsewhere, and bigger towns serving as 'administrative villages'. Some towns were abandoned by the sixth century, but others may have been occupied by a reduced elite. The classic example of this, as revealed by the late Phil Barker's excavations from the 1960s to 1990s, was Wroxeter in Shropshire. Rubble platforms over the part-demolished basilica seem to have supported multi¬storey timber buildings in classical style — a high status centre, possibly for the church rather than the state by the sixth century, leaving no obvious evidence other than patterns of stones and rubble. There are similar hints in other British towns, but British sites generally preserve little evidence of timber buildings. There were changes in the countryside too, e.g. in villas, whose occupation seems to have declined from the 350s, with hints such as human remains and rubble found in wells. Some of this could date to the 'Barbarian Conspiracy' of 367 — synchronised raids on Britain from north and south. Recent excavations and improved excavation techniques over the past 30 years in detecting features such as timber buildings like those of the Saxon period have found hints of continuity at villa sites such as Orton Hall Farm. Attempts have been made to extrapolate Roman estate boundaries from modern parish and other boundaries. What did the less well-off rural population do at this time? As for the Army — did it actually withdraw? There is conflicting evidence. In the fourth century at Housesteads fort up on Hadrian's Wall barrack blocks were built in a new style as small individual structures — 'chalets' — perhaps even housing families. There was a change in the structure of the Army, with the old 5000 mail legions being replaced by smaller units of a different. nature. Building styles were different, with evidence of earth ramparts built over earlier stone defences at Housesteads and a decline in stone quarrying for building material. Later post-Roman occupation at Birdoswald on Hadrian's Wall featured a timber hall over the levelled remains of the stone granaries, which was occupied into the fifth or sixth century. At South Shields, the dilapidated gateway (now reconstructed in full on site) was recommissioned and repaired in timber rather than stone, with a new timber lintel. All these could have been occupied by Roman soldiers or succeeding 'war bands'. Material culture such as coinage and pottery is fundamental to archaeologists' lives. Production of pottery and importation of coins ceased soon after 400, probably after the reign of Constantine, around 409 (as central authority was no longer bringing in cash from the continent to pay troops). The fourth century economy was highly monetised and dependant on coinage, but after around 409 there were no more coins imported and no local production of coinage. Why? There was however some continuity of metalwork such as the belt fittings worn by soldiers and officials as badges of authority, their styles often a mix of Germanic and Roman, given the number of Germanic troops in the late Roman army. Changes in religion saw pagan Anglo-Saxon styles of cremation burials replacing Christian inhumations in eastern Britain, where Christianity had become the state religion in the early fourth century. There is some evidence of religious continuity, such as at Uley in Gloucestershire, where the site remained important as a Christian Church was built over a pagan temple. As for language, although the British tongue died out in eastern Britain, some Romano-British place names survived. There is increasing recognition of such Celtic evidence, with less bias towards suivival in western Britain than previously thought. Latin survived as a scholarly language in western and northern Britain, being used by scholars such as Gildas, and returned post 597. In the west, inscriptions were made in both Latin and Irish Ogham script. As for religion and politics, there was change as new people arrived in eastern England. New kingdoms bore little resemblance to Roman provinces, though it is notable that Kent preserves the name of the pre-Roman Cantii tribe, and there is some other continuity. Spread of cultural attributes — compare the spread of American culture in Britain in the past 50 years. Burial practices changed from inhumation to urned cremations, but the idea of Rome survived on Saxon coins in the images used, in however debased a form, and influenced later English Kings. Existing Romano-British populations may have adopted Germanic cultural norms. Few people these days believe they were wiped out — more likely absorbed by intermarriage or moved to more marginal land. When did the changes occur? Roman Britain was not static. There were cyclical phases of pottery production and the culture, religion and politics of fourth century Britain were different from those of the second century. Coin use and ceramics production fluctuated. The late fourth century was more like the fifth century than the second, with smaller settlement patterns. Many changes took years — and who did such changes affect? The urban provincial and civic elite, the Army, and traders serving them — a small proportion, perhaps 10%, of a late Roman population of some three million, of whom the other 90% lived in the countryside. Of these majority, we know little of what they did and thought at the time, having often made limited use of Roman material culture, bartering goods, for which coinage was not essential once the Roman tax collectors were replaced perhaps by more local dues in kind. By the fourth century, the centralised state was battling regional trends towards independence as evidenced by the various usurpers, with archaeology partly confirming this with the growth of 'unofficial' small towns. Political authority collapsed rapidly because of longer term fragmentation. Cultural practices had their own patterns of change. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons was a long-term process over decades in the fifth century, with the balance of power shifting from the native Britons to the Anglo Saxons in eastern Britain in the late fifth century, long after the collapse of the Roman administration. Formation of the succeeding English kingdoms took centuries. Resistance by the British was so stubborn that around 500 many migrants left Briton for their homeland or Gaul — Arthur? — but by around 550 the Saxon advance resumed into Wiltshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire and beyond. How did Britons see themselves in the fourth century — as having a British, Roman or tribal identity? Who held power in the early fifth century — perhaps high-status individuals/kings descended from the Romano-British aristocracy or pretenders, perhaps with some sort of urban elite as evidenced by the visits of St Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, to St Albans in 429 and again a few years later. The sources record a few names such as the Romano-British king Vortigem who supposedly first invited in Saxon mercenaries in the mid fifth century. What was the scale and mechanism of the Anglo-Saxon migration — was it led by mercenaries or an active invasion? There is little evidence for sub-Roman political forms; taxation probably moved from coinage to in kind. `The End' life goes on? Or 'Barbarians at the gates'? Both probably true in part. To quote that great man Obi-Wan-Kenobi, 'Many of the truths we cling to depend greatly on our own point of view'

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Re -enactments at the Royal Gunpowder Mills — Waltham Abbey by Stephen Brunning

Members may be interested to know that the Royal Gunpowder Mills is holding a series of weekend re-enactments between April and September 2007. For further information, call 01992 707 370, or see hyperlink "": The Royal Gunpowder Mills are open weekends, Wednesdays during the summer school break, and bank holidays from Saturday 28th April to Sunday 7th October between l lam to 5pm (last entry 3.30pm). Admission prices INCLUDE the above events: Adults £6, children £3.50 (5-16 years), under 5's Free, concessions £5 (over 60 & students), family tickets £19 (2 adults and up to 3 children). Their address is Beaulieu Drive, Waltham Abbey, Essex. For those who use Satellite Navigation, the Post Code is EN9 1JY!! Members may also be interested in the exhibition 'Life and Death in Ancient Egypt' at the Museum of St Albans until Sunday 10th June.

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The Last Hendon Farm: The archaeology and history of Church End Farm by Don Cooper

This review of our publication appeared in the winter number of London Archaeologist. The editor is grateful to Becky Wallower, the author of the review, -and Clive Orton, the editor of London Archaeologist, for permission to reprint it. It should inspire those members who have not bought The Last Hendon Farm to buy it (copies are available to members from Don Cooper (address at the end of this newsletter) at the concessionary price to members of £8) and those who are not subscribers to London Archaeologist to subscribe (£16 a year, from 8 Woodview Crescent, Hildenborough, Tonbridge Kent TN11 9HD.) "So what can be done with all those fading, incomplete, difficult to interpret and unpublished records that lurk in the archives of archaeological societies up and down Britain? This exemplary report from Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS) offers a model of just how much can be extracted, and just how well it can be communicated. "Money helps of course. The generous use of photographs and historical images, the high production quality and some technical artefact analysis was made possible by a legacy from a HADAS member_ But the success of this volume is equally due to the innovative approach taken to get the archives analysed and written up. Local people enrolled on a course in post excavation analysis with Birkbeck College have researched the documentary evidence, unravelled the "bewildering array" of site records and written this account of one of Hendon's three farms, under the tutelage and editorship of MoLAS post-med pottery specialist, Jacqui Pearce. "The problem was a familiar one: a large volume of excavation records, press cuttings, photographs, historical documents and artefacts resulting from the 1960s excavations by the fledgling archaeological society of two areas in the centre of Hendon. In search of Hendon's Anglo Saxon origins, HADAS first investigated the site of Church End Farm before it was demolished to make way for Hendon Technical College. The second set of excavations, of Church Terrace is being studied by further Birkbeck post-excavation courses and will be the subject of a future volume from the society. "The students / authors clearly had some problems making firm conclusions from the available site records: the approach to recording was changed part way through the excavations making contexts difficult to identify, and a proportion of the artefactual evidence had gone missing in the intervening 40 years. Nevertheless, quite a reasonable job appears to have been made of cross referencing the various bits of documentation and relating it to artefacts. "Historical and archaeological background makes up the first part of the report, with Hendon and the farm being set in the context of London's hinterland over 250 years. A key conclusion of the study group was the dating of the farm buildings. Whilst documentary evidence supports occupation only back to the mid 18th century, typology of the farmhouse construction, based on period watercolours and pre-demolition photos as well as the excavation evidence, indicates 17th century.- origins. "This was supported by the detailed study of the finds, the account Of which represents just over half the report. The description of typologies and dating is smoothly merged with discussion of the significance of particular types of pottery, clay pipes, tiles, bottles, coins or animal bone. Plenty of helpful background to each class of artefact is given without being too dry, so that quite a vibrant picture emerges of comfortably off occupants enjoying the fruits of their various labours. An unusual collection of bird, or sparrow, pots, for example, elicits a fascinating consideration of the form, the origins of the pots, where they might have been placed and what they were used for (either for collecting bird bounties or sparrow pie apparently). "The few quibbles with this volume are hardly substantial ones. The omission of a modern site plan in favour of a few historical maps makes it difficult to understand where the excavations took place and how the buildings related to each other and to neighbouring farms, church and pub. The writing by seven authors is inevitably a bit patchy. The chapter on future work doesn't actually describe any. An index would have been good. This really is the gold standard though. It's both a readable, well organised and interesting account of a site of local importance, and a benchmark for those with cupboards full of seemingly unmanageable archives."

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Other Societies' Events Compiled by Eric Morgan

Monday 2nd April 3 pm Barnet and District Local History Society. Church House, Wood Street (opposite Museum) Barnet. The Elephant Man' talk by Dr Kate Thompson

Wednesday 4th April 8 pm Stanmore & Harrow Historical Society. Wealdstone Baptist Church Hall, High Street, Wealdstone. Some Middlesex Milestones Talk by John Donovan. Modest charge.

Thursday 5th April 8 pm Pinner Local History Society. Village Hall, Chapel Lane car park, Pinner Chiltern Open Air Museum Talk by Len Baker. visitors £1

Wednesday llth April 8 pm Hornsey Historical Society. Union Church Hall, Corner of Ferme Park Road Weston Park N8. The Workhouse in 19th century Middlesex Talk by Paul Carter.

Saturday 14th April 7.30 pm Celebrating the bicentenary of the abolition of the slave trade St Paul's Church The Ridgeway NW7. John Newton, mentor to William Wilberforce talk by Mary Lynn Rouse.

Thursday 19th April 6.30 pm LAMAS Terrace Room, Museum of London150 London Wall EC2. The Old Welsh Bridge at Shrewsbury - a newly discovered fortified bridge Talk by Bruce Watson. Refreshments.

Friday 20th April 8 pm Enfield Archaeological Society Jubilee Hall Junction of Chase Side and Parsonage Lane, Enfield. Excavations and Fieldwork of the Society 2006 and AGM. Dr Martin Weare & Mike Dewbrey. £1

Saturday 21st April 2pm The Battle of Barnet Guided Walk. Meeting Junction of Great North Road and Hadley Green Road. Led by Paul Baker £6. Lasts 2 hours.

Wednesday 25th April 8pm Friern Barnet and District Local History Society St John's Church Hall (next to Whetstone Police Station) Friern Barnet Lane N20. Exhibitions in Great Britain Talk by Don Knight £2.

Thursday 26th April 8pm The Finchley Society Drawing Room, Avenue House, East End Road N3 Talk by Robert WintOn (Hon. Sec.) Non-members admission £2

Sunday 29th April 2pm East Barnet Village Guided walk. Meet outside East Barnet Library, Brookhill Road Historical walk led by Paul Baker. £6

Sunday 29th April- 9th September Church Farm Museum Greyhound Hill, Hendon, NW4 Exhibition on Centenary of Life in Hampstead Garden Suburb from the early years to the present day.