Newsletter-322-January-1998

 


ROMAN SILCHESTER

Members may remember a HADAS visit to this site in August 1995. The CBA's British Archaeological Magazine for November 1997 reports that:

Aerial photography and a new excava­tion at the Roman town at Silchester near Reading, which was heavily exca­vated last century, suggest that more survives at the site than was thought. More stone buildings existed than were known, as well as a number of 'blank' areas that could have been open spaces.

The excavation, directed by Michael Fulford and Amanda Clark of Reading University, has revealed shops, work­shops and a large timber building built at a diagonal to the street grid. The house, which is thought to date from the 5th or 6th centuries, was built over a period of time in a classically Roman style but with declining standards of workmanship. It may have been the res­idence of a post-Roman chieftan, trying to maintain a classical life-style at a time when society as a whole was breaking down.

TIME TEAM 1998

Eight programmes this year starting on 4 January. Excavations include a croquet lawn at Richmond Palace, a manor house in Shropshire and the ecclesiastical settle­ment of Downpatrick in Northern Ireland. Plus investigation for trackways in the Somerset Levels, of a series of mounds in Orkney and pursuit of the Beaker People on Mallorca.


CHRISTMAS DINNER 1997

A report by Denis Ross

Moral: Do not cross Dorothy Newbury! Before the dinner, I told her (joking of course) that my wife and I were concerned that we were among the few people on the atten­dance list who lacked Christian names. As a result of this unwise move, two-thirds through the dinner, Dorothy asked me to "write it up" having made sure that it was too late for me to make notes on what we had previously seen or been told!

Christmas start early for HADAS. The dinner took place on 3rd December at Sutton House in Homerton Road, Hackney and was attended by over fifty people. A fair num­ber of them had been present at the same venue some 5 years ago. The coach arrived promptly at the various pick-up points, negotiated the evening traffic and delivered us safely. The evening was cold and a welcoming glass (or two) of warming mulled wine was greatly appreciated.

We were then addressed by Mike Gray, the President of the Sutton House Society and described in the brochure as "local historian, photographer, lecturer and guide". He told us about the history of the oldest Tudor house in the East End of London. It was built by Sir Ralph Sadleir (who was Principal Secretary of State to Henry VIII and one of Elizabeth I Privy Councillors) as a red brick mansion (the bryk house) in about 1535 - a date supported by tree-ring analysis. The building followed the Tudor "H" plan and was sited on the edge of Hackney Brook, which apparently still exists. It is now diffi­cult to think of Hackney as a village, then noted for its "healthful air" and suitable as a country retreat for City of London merchants or as a refuge from the plague!

The house went through many changes of ownership and use, including home to City merchants and Huguenot silk weavers, use by clergy, schools, a local Institute and a Trade Union. At one time, the house was split into two but it was subsequently reunit­ed. Comparatively recently it was occupied by squatters. In 1938 it was acquired by the National Trust.

The house enjoyed a variety of names depending on ownership. The NT renames it Sutton House after Thomas Sutton who founded Charterhouse Hospital and School, who at one time lived next door.

The house fell into disrepair. However, in 1990 the NT, together with local interests, began, and subsequently completed at considerable cost, substantial building works to repair and restore the fabric. It is now used as an educational, cultural and social cen­tre. During the course of restoration, it was possible to uncover many of the original features, such as stone fireplaces. The most impressive room is the Great Chamber with its fine panelling and recovered portraits of the Sadleir family. A staircase led to the principal bedroom with its own, somewhat primitive, privy. Mr Gray advanced the theory and suggested the evidence that Henry VIII may have visited the house and stayed in that "suite" but that does seem somewhat speculative. The old fireplaces and brickwork and the Tudor beams in the kitchen contrast well with the modern conser­vatory cafe and concert hall.

After touring the house we settled down to an excellent Christmas dinner - even though the crackers contained the worst riddles ever! The food and drink and the ser­vice were of a very high standard. At the end our Chairman, Andrew Selkirk, made a brief speech. He thanked all those concerned in HADAS affairs and particularly of course, Dorothy, for her organisation of this event with her customary military preci­sion. There is no doubt that id she had been in charge of World War II it would have been over in half the time! Finally, there was a raffle - and I won a prize! A well-fed and contented party re-boarded the coach for the journey home. Altogether, an excel­lent evening.

A postscript from Dorothy: "Several members thought that Sutton House was the best Christmas effort ever. The food was certainly the best! The only exception I can think of was the Tower of London in December 1976. I cannot remember the meal at


all but the setting and the excitement of HADAS' first "outside" venture is clear in my mind to this day. The Society had grown too
big for our usual Christmas party at 166 Station Road and we took the plunge and booked at the restaurant inside the Tower precincts. December lit was a clear night sparkling with frost. Security and identification were paramount as the IRA was very active at the time. (The restaurant was. closed the following year and never re-opened). The Gurkhas were in residence for the Ceremony of the Keys at 10pm. We ventured out to watch, muffled from the cold and slightly inebriated. The frost and lights glistened on The Thames and the ancient buildings echoed to the eerie sound of marching as the soldiers performed the unique ceremony. It was a very moving experience - followed by a cup of hot punch in the warm restaurant. I think there was a police 'incident' in which we became involved after that but whether it was the punch, the food or just tiredness, 1 can't remember the details!

As 21 years have now passed since our first Christmas dinner special, is it time for a newer member to take over the arrangements? Any offers?

Members should know that Dorothy dictated her postcript to the Editor from her sickbed when she was laid low by one of the viru­lent germs going the rounds before Christmas. I think we can assume her desire to relinquish the dinner was just a symptom of her wretchedness at the time.


FINCHLEY BUS DEPOT                                                                        Bill Firth

Finchley bus depot in Woodberry Grove, N12 has been closed for some time and a planning application has been submitted for its demolition and replacement by a Homebase Store.

The depot was opened in 1906 as a tram depot to serve an expanding network. Electric trams first came to North Finchley from Highgate Archway in June 1905 and this line was extended in two stages to. Barnet by March 1907. The link to New Southgate was opened in April 1909 and the last link, through Golders Green to Cricklewood, in December 1909.

Finchley tram depot, in common with Hendon (Colindale), was unusual in that it had been built with the lines into the tram shed fanning out from points at the entrance. In the late 1920s the points were replaced with a transverser by which a car was moved from the entrance to a track in the shed. This resulted in a considerable saving of space.

In 1936 trolleybuses replaced trams on the Cricklewood section. This reduced the number of trams using Finchley but it was not until 1938 the Finchley became a trol­leybus depot when the other tram lines in the area were replaced. This was fairly short-lived as buses replaced trolleys in the early 1960s.FINCHLEY,BUSes have gone now and the depot will follow shortly. Thus another bit of transport history in the borough -some ninety years of it - will disappear.

One thought on this: can it really be economic and is it 'green' to run empty buses from Finchley to Potters Bar garage?

A small memento of the depot will remain. The War Memorial to the men of the garage is to be preserved and repositioned on the new site.

NEWS FROM OUR NEIGHBOURS

ENFIELD ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY (0181- 804 6918)

16 January A Tale of Two Provinces - Greeks & Romans in Ancient Lybia Ian Jones THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION (0181- 455 8318)

22 January Pageants and Propaganda. Colin Gregory LAMAS (0171- 600 3699)

8 January Art in Roman London. Dr Martin Henig

PINNER LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETY (0181- 866 3372)

8 January Pubs of Pinner - a survey past and present. Ken Kirkman

POTTERS BAR & DISTRICT HISTORICAL SOCIETY (01707 642886)

30 January The Story of Forty Hall. Geoffrey Giliam

MUSEUM OF LONDON

11, 18 & 25 January at 2.00pm and 3.15pm Object handling: Roman objects 11, 18 & 25 January 1.00-4.00pm Roman London with actor/interpreters

16 January at 1,10pm Lecture: Mental disorder in Children: past, present and future

23 January at 1.10pm Lecture: From York Minster to Bedlam


GUNNERSBURY PARK MUSEUM

Popes Lane, London, W3 8QL (0181- 992 1612)

Rothschilds at Gunnersbury

An exhibition on the life of the Rothschilds using photographs and archive material. The family bought Gunnersbury Mansion in 1835 and were renowned for their lavish entertaining, ornate house decor and spectacular gardens. (Museum open I - 4 pm)RESTORATION AT FORTY HALL

Enfield Archaeological Society's December bulletin reported that the restoration of the stable block and barn is well in hand, with the roof tiles about to be replaced. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to retain and restore the original tiles as many were distorted in firing and instead of being pegged in place, were bedded into a thick layer of mortar. A boarded roof and battens have been installed and suitable tiles will be pegged in place. Much of the lower part of the timber frame had rotted and has been replaced, as has the crumbling brickwork. English Heritage carried out a watching brief while work was in progress and wall foundations were dated to the late 17th/early 18th century. A brick floor and gutter dating from the 19th century was noted. These findings do not differ substantially from those published in Forty Hall 1629-1997.

COURSES

Rewley House, 1 Wellington Square, Oxford (Department for Continuing Education) Telephone 01865 270369 for details.

Friday 9 - Sunday 11 January: The Early 19th-century Great House. Fees from £64.00. Saturday 17 - Sunday 18 January: Probate Records. Fees from £46.00.

Saturday 17 January 9.45-5.30: The Neanderthals and their European Ancestors. Fee £30.50 with lunch; £24.00 without lunch.

Friday 30 January - Sunday 1 February: Romanisation in Britain. Fees from £44 (non­residential/no meals) to £126.50 (residential, single room).

Finchley Antiques Appreciation Group. 7.50pm at Avenue House. Telephone Mrs Mary Jackson 9181-203 3735 for details)

14 January: The Fashion for Tea Drinking in England. Speaker: Sarah Bowles. WEA Barnet Branch. Telephone Olive Harrison 0181.445 4423.

Mondays 8-10pm at Ewan Hall, Wood Street, Barnet. Industrial Archaeology.

WEA Elstree, Borehamwood & Radlett Branch. Telephone W A Whitehead 01727 873309. Tuesdays 7.30-9.30pm at The Vestry, All Saints Church, Borehamwood. History of Archaeology.

WEA Finchley Branch. Contact Joe Sellars on 0181-346 4613 or Jean Gruner on 0181-445 6733. Thursdays 2-4pm at Wimbush House, 6 Westbury Road, N12. London on the Move. (The growth and development of transport in the city). Mondays 2-4pm at Blue Beetle Room, St.Mary's Church, Hendon Lane, N3. Historic Cities and Sites of the Mediterranean.

WEA Mill Hill & Edgware Branch. Telephone Moira Eagle on 0181- 959 1230. Fridays 10.30am-12,30pm at Small Hall, Union Church, Mill Hill Broadway, NW7. Archaeology of our Human Origins.


THE JEWISH MUSEUM

80 East End Road, Finchley, N3

"The Tailor, The Baker, The Cabinet Maker" is the title of a new exhibition which reveals the hard working lives of Jewish immigrants who tied to Britain from Eastern Europe at the beginning of this century.

There are reconstructed tailoring and cabinet-makers workshops of the type common in the East End of London in the early 1900s and children have the chance to handle tools and take part in activities.

Immigrant Furniture ,Workers in London 1881-1939 by William Massil, just published by the museum, traces the development of the trade and documents the contribution made by many Jewish craftsmen.

The museum is open Monday to Thursday 10.30-5 and 10.30430 on Sunday.


CHURCH FARMHOUSE MUSEUM Compendium of GAMES, the Christmas exhibition at the museum, offers something for games enthusiasts of all ages. On show until 25 January, there are hundreds of board games and pu dating from the mid-19th century. A games room gives children a chance to try their luck and skill.

You have probably played Muksha­patamu, which was brought to this country from India and we know as Snakes and Ladders. You may remem­ber Lexicon, Scramble, Shake Words and Kan-u-go, Ludo, Nine Men's Morris and Monopoly. But have you ever heard of Foo-Foo, advertised as "Just what is wanted to make a Jolly Party"? There can't be many people who have tried to play Trade Up to Elite Cow, marketed by the Dairy Farmers' Association!

Among the Mah-Jongg, Go and Scrabble is an intriguing game called Horsie-Horsie. This was invented by prisoners at Marlag and Milag Nord POW camps in Germany in 1944 and marketed after the Second World War but no-one seems to know the history of the game.

On show with the museum's restored 1820s bagatelle table is a wonderful collection of chess sets designed by local resident and chess enthusiast, Peter Morrish. Pieces range in size from half an inch (pocket sets) to two feet (for patio games).

Board games are centuries old and were played in ancient Egypt, China, India and Africa. The Victorians invent­ed hundreds of them and it's fascinating to see how old games change to meet modern interests and new games are invented to test the players' skill, luck and will to win.

Compendium of GAMES is on show until Sunday 25 January. The museum will be closed on 1 January but there­after is open as usual Monday to Thursday 10-12.30 and 1.30 -5; (closed on Fridays); Saturday 10-1 and 2-5.30; Sunday 2-5.30.

A Victorian family Christmas

Until Twelfth Night (6 January) the din­ing room at the museum is dressed to celebrate a Victorian family Christmas. If you have young members in the fam­ily or visitors from abroad over Christmas and New Year, they will enjoy discovering all the detail in the museum's magical recreation of a Victorian Christmas.

POST-MEDIEVAL POTTERY FROM 19-29 HIGH STREET , CHIPPING BARNET, HERTFORDSHIRE.  by Bill Bass

NGR: TO 24735 96345 SMR: 082242 & 082243

The site was excavated by the HADAS in two phases: 1990 (19-25 High Street) site code BHS 90 and 1992 (29 High Street) site code BHS 92. They were reported in the HADAS newsletters of those two years. A report of the Medieval pottery is deposited with the archive and will be the basis of a future article. This article is a partial summary of the Post-Medieval pottery report. Excavations at this site produced a total of 1,083 sherds ranging from the 16th to 20th centuries. There were 10 identifiable fabrics from 48 contexts. Pottery from both phases are considered here together.

Cistercian Ware (CSTN) date 1500-1600 or Blackwares early 17th - late 18th century.

Blackware is thought to be a derivative of Cistercian Ware and is found over much of England (D Crossley 1990: 246-247). Blackware production centres range over the North, Midlands and East Anglia, but a more locally known centre is at Woodside in Hertfordshire where single-handled black mugs were made (ibid.). Cistercian Ware and Blackware fabrics are largely similar,

though the vessel forms here appear to be of the Blackware tradition.

There were 47 sherds of this type (4.5% of the post-med. total) from 6 contexts, of which 3 were                                For example pit-fill 604

(BHS 90) contained 30 sherds representing 2, one-handled mugs, one - a base sherd only, the second mug was reconstructed to about 40% of its whole (illustrated), (rim approx. 119mm dia). The fabric was of a hard/fine textured, medium-red, thin bodied (3-4mm ) ware with a mottled brown/black lead glaze covering most of the internal and external body.

Border Ware (BORD, RBOR) 1550-1750

25 sherds of this fabric (2.3 % of total) were found from 2 contexts - 102 pit-fill and 113 an associated gully (both BHS 92). Five vessels are indicated, including sherds of 3, one-handled Porringer bowls of c1590 in date, (one illustrated) all with internal mottled dark-green glaze. A further bowl (illustrated) 98mm deep with a rim dia of 290mm also had a dark-green internal glaze. The above bowl fabrics are of the fine white textures usually associated with Border wares originating from the Surrey-Hampshire

district. A handle, tubular in shape with an internal conical appearance and internal / external mottled dark-green glaze is probably a Pipkin or Skillet handle. The fabric is of a fine red-coloured texture and is likely to be Red Border Ware.

 

 

Tin-glazed earthenware (TGW) 1600-1800

20 sherds of this ware were found (1.9%) mostly plainly decorated , of which 18 came from pit-fill 604 (BHS 90), representing at l250mmvessels including: a chamber pot - 190mm dia, a plate rim with blue-banded decoration – 250mm dia also a jug rim - 150mm dia.

Staffordshire Slipware (STSL) 1600-1800

6 sherds were recovered (0.6%) mainly from context 604, representing 2 vessels, one being a cup.

Metropolitan Slipware (METS) 1630-17130

6 sherds of this fabric (0.6%) came from 2 contexts; 5 from context 601 (BHS 90) representing 3 vessels - one a possible plate 10mm thick, dia approx. 350mm. Various kilns are known in the London area at Epping Forest, Harlow and Woodside (nr Hatfield, Hertfordshire).

Post-Medieval Redware (PMR) 1650-1800

A total of 366 sherds (33.75%) came from 26 contexts. BHS 90 produced 160 sherds most notably from context 306 a 19thc pit fill, the sherds represented at least 2 vessels. Context 604 had 29 sherds , approx. 4 - 5 vessels, including two rims - one flanged, 260mm dia , one rolled 250mm dia , 3 base sherds, one handle section - flattened oval shape 32mm dia, a sherd with a handle scar 55mm dia. Also from 604 came a substantial vessel base 140mm dia with possible lime deposits.

BHS 92 accounted for 206 sherds mostly from contexts 102, 107, 113 - all pit or gully fills. Vessels included a tankard base (illustrated), (base dia 81mm), red fabric with a slightly reduced core coated internally & externally with a dark mottled black/brown glaze , externally there is a handle attachment and ribbed/turned decoration. A partly reconstructed 'roaster dish' came from context 113 dating to c 1590, these are usually oval in shape with a pouring lip at one or both ends (possible reconstruction illustrated). The

vessel appears to be hand made with knife trimming, it has a light red, fine textured fabric, with a thick grey reduced core, one handle is present. there is an internal thin green-glaze.Stoneware  1500-1900

There were 58 sherds (5.45%) from 16 contexts. 43 sherds came from BHS 90 most stratified material was contained by context 604 pit-fill (14 sherds). 15 sherds were recovered from BHS 92, 3 sherds from pit/gully fill 102/113 co-joined and were date stamped 1597 (illustrated). Also from 113 were a further 4 sherds including a handle = 4 vessels represented, A whole mottled mid-brown stoneware bottle (170mm tall by 65mm dia) stamped Frank of Barnet, was recovered from context 104.

White salt-glazed stoneware, 1720-1770, 10 sherds came from context 604 and form at least 4 vessels including a large rimmed jar of 120mm dia.

Transfer Printed Ware (TPW) 1800-1900

A total of 62 sherds (5.72%), BHS 90 produced 47 from 5 contexts e.g. context 202 - 22 sherds and context 602 - 15 sherds, both top-soils_ Prom BHS 92 there were 15 sherds mostly in context 108 - 13 sherds.

China (ENPO, CHPO)

The site produced 172 sherds of china/porcelain (15.9%), 118 from BHS 90 including 100 + sherds from context 601.

Discussion

The site in general was very disturbed in nature with probable varying occupation since the 12th century. This is reflected in that most contexts were mixed and disturbed throughout the excavations. Despite this, the bulk of the sherds appear 'clean' broken and seem to be dumped or originate on, near to the site. As far as possible fabrics were classified by known wares or industries.

The BHS 90 area covered 546 sq. m of which 20% was excavated, the most securely post-medieval dated context here was pit-fill 604 - (feature 6F1) which contained the Cistercian/Blackware ware mugs, Tin-glazed ware chamber pot and sherds of stoneware, slipware and other Post-Medieval Redwares. Together with other evidence this pit maybe dated to the 18th century.

Most of the other contexts contain a mixture of PMR, Transfer-Printed wares, Stonewares and Porcelain (China) and would seem to be disturbed layers of the 18th-20th centuries.

BHS 92 shares a similar story, approx. 50sq m were excavated. The earliest post-medieval feature here was a pit - (IF 15) contexts 102, 120 and an associated gully (1F10) context 113, the combined pottery weight from these contexts was 3.6kg. Pottery from here included the dated stoneware sherds (1597), the Border Ware vessels and PMR meat dripping dish both c 1590. There is also a larger amount variously glazed PMR sherds which may point to the pit being used mainly during 17th century but being disturbed/truncated by context 106 which was a later humic soil, some medieval pottery was also present. Context 107 & 108 contained sherds of PMR, Transfer Printed wares and China, these layers were near the area of a 'Smithy' as shown on an 1863 OS 25" map and would seem to confirm a 19th century date.

Chipping Barnet's location on the Great North Road and London to Holyhead road, plus local production centres gave the residents easy access to a selection of Post- Medieval ceramics, its market dating from the late 12th century distributing such wares. Identifiable vessels seem to include ordinary domestic types of tableware's, cooking wares, sanitary ware and storage vessels - mugs, tankards, porringers, bowls, chamberpots, roasting dishes and plates, plus the usual forms associated with the later china and transfer printed wares - cups, saucers, plates and so forth.

Apart from the traditional Staffordshire sources, local kilns could account for some of the earlier slipwares and the variously glazed red earthenware e.g. at Essex, Hertfordshire, London. Borderwares came from the Surrey/Hampshire industry via London Stonewares are probably German imports although there are London sources from the 17th century. Tin-glazed wares were similarly imported in large quantities during the 16th and 17th centuries, with London production beginning around the late 16th century.

Bibliography

BARKER, D. North Staffordshire Post-Medieval Ceramics - a Type Series, Part One: Cistercian Ware; Part Two: Blackwares. CROSSLEY, D. Post-Medieval Archaeology in Britain. L.U.P. 1990

DRAPER. J. Post-Medieval Pottery 1650-1800. Shire. 1984.

LAMAS/SAS Excavations in Southwark 1973-76, Lambeth 1973-79. Joint Publication No.3. 1988

PEARCE, J. Post-Medieval Pottery in London 1500-1700, Border Wares. HMSO, 1992 



January                       HENDON AND DISTRICT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY                      1998

Over recent years, the number of people participating in HADAS projects has dwindled. In the HADAS Newsletter of March 1995 the idea of reviving the Research Sub-Committee was mooted. The HADAS Committee has now considered areas in which research is needed and the following list sets out ten themes for which members' participation is requested.

This list is NOT definitive and we hope that members will come forward with their own ideas and suggestions. Talents required to participate in these projects are varied - use of our own records, public archives, other societies' records etc will be necessary in some instances; photography may be necessary as may analytical skills. Individuals may also find they have time to commit to more than one project so please send off the reply slip advising your interests.

1. FRIERN BARNET/WHETSTONE - VILLAGE PROJECT. During HADAS excavations at St James' Church, Friern Barnet during the 1970s, crop marks were noted. These were interpreted as part of the original Friary complex and two of our current HADAS members feel that this area is where the village of Whetstone originated. Documentary, map, and other relevant research is needed in order to produce a suitable research design if excavation is to be undertaken in this area.

2. ROMAN HENDON. HADAS excavations at Church Farmhouse in 1993 and 1996 produced evidence of Roman activity. Previous HADAS excavations nearby have produced similar evidence. A review of all excavations undertaken within the area is proposed, including work by other units, in order to assess the extent of the evidence and to consider the feasibility of future fieldwork.

3. VIATORES ROUTE 167. The Society undertook considerable fieldwork in the 1960s on the possible route of this Roman road. Our attention has been drawn to another possible location which needs to be investigated, with publication in mind, survey and possible excavation.

4. HAMPSTEAD HEATH RESISTIVITY SURVEY. This long-term project on an Anglo-Saxon boundary ditch requires people with specialised ecological knowledge in order that our survey report can include natural history data, especially flora, as a feature of the area under survey. For example, there is a need to quantify the type of ground cover, and its effects upon the survival of the ditch.

5. FIELD WALKING PROJECT. We need to set up a small working party to review field walking undertaken by the Society since its inception and to decide on the feasibility of returning to certain sites in order to undertake further work. Also, to locate other accessible areas within the Borough where field walking is viable, and to propose an ongoing programme. This group to take on organizational responsibilities.

6. REVIEW of a) Schedule of Listed Buildings, b) Scheduled Monuments, and c) Archaeological Priority Areas within the Borough - with a view to adding to the lists and areas.

7. NON-CONFORMIST CHURCHES PROJECT. The late George Ingram, a Society member for many years, carried out considerable research into Chapels within the Borough. It is intended to continue his work with a view to publication, as a tribute to George.

8. EAST BARNET VILLAGE/MANOR. Work has been undertaken on this area by individual HADAS members as well as other groups, and has included excavation and historical research. Consolidation and review is necessary to identify future fieldwork and the possibility of excavation.

9. INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY IN BARNET. Although industrial archaeology has not played a key role in HADAS activities, it is known that several members are active in this speciality. We believe that there are enough sites of interest within the Borough for a HADAS occasional paper to be published on this theme, perhaps incorporating World War II features.

10.  RESEARCHING THE HISTORY OF HADAS. As the Society approaches its fortieth anniversary, in the new millennium, it would be appropriate to review and catalogue the Society's past activities, including projects undertaken by individual members, excavations and surveys, and to identify where this information is held. This is intended to avoid duplication of work over the next forty years. To complete this history, it should include the listing of outings, long weekends, exhibitions, etc. We  hope to set some projects in motion by the summer. It all depends on you, our members.

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